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Global Warming and Climate Change Peer-Reviewed Evidence List #01


What exactly is the scientific (peer-reviewed) evidence that best represents the current scientific consensus about Climate Change and Global Warming?

Climate Change peer-reviewed  Evidence Chap1I have collected this information in response to some persistent media coverage to the contrary of many facts that have been previously reported by the scientific community.

This project became a painfully obvious necessary evil after hearing recent political candidates speak in the USA. Without mentioning names let me just say that for whatever reason they and/or their advisors have not obviously taken the time to research Climate Change and Global Warming to even a cursory depth.  In short, without exception every recognized National and/or international science academy and scientific society that I have personally researched have ALL previously released statements regarding their current scientific opinion on Global Warming and Climate Change. Note that there are no corporate sponsored think tanks or pseudo-science organizations on any such recognized lists. Without exception they have all expressed assessments that have been generally consistent with the conclusions of the 4th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from 2007, which was sourced from thousands of peer-reviewed scientific studies. However, inquiring minds don’t just let the talking heads on TV or various editors and producers tell them what they need to know, but rather wish to discover what exact peer-reviewed Scientific References were used by the most recent IPCC report to determine the current consensus of the Global Climate system and perhaps draw their own summation.

The Fifth IPCC Assessment basically strengthens the statement released in February 2007, of the IPCC’s released summary of their Fourth Assessment Report, which found “that human actions are “very likely” the cause of global warming, meaning a 90% or greater probability.”

If you wish to skip to the summation or read the entire Fifth IPCC Assessment Report a link is provided at the end of this document.

This following list represents only the references used in Chapter 1 (one) of 14 (fourteen), plus 3 three (Annex) that constitute the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  Even this partial list of  specific Peer-Reviewed References is substantial and is according to those that helped create the report what was used as evidence to determine current Scientific Consensus on Global Warming and Climate Change:

 Chapter 1: IPCC Fifth Assessment Report References

Allen, M. R.,., J. F. B. Mitchell, and P. A. Stott, 2013: Test of a decadal climate forecast. Nature Geoscience , 6 , 243-244.

AMAP, 2009: Summary – The Greenland Ice Sheet in a Changing Climate: Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA). Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), 22.

Armour, K. C., I. Eisenman, E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, K. E. McCusker, and C. M. Bitz, 2011: The reversibility of sea ice loss in a state-of-the-art climate model. Geophysical Research Letters , 38 .

Arrhenius, S., 1896: On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground. Philos. Mag. , 41 , 237–276.

Baede, A. P. M., E. Ahlonsou, Y. Ding, and D. Schimel, 2001: The Climate System: an Overview. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Beerling, D. J., and D. L. Royer, 2011: Convergent Cenozoic CO2  history. Nature Geoscience , 4 , 418-420.

Bretherton, F. P., K. Bryan, and J. D. Woodes, 1990: Time-Dependent Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment  Cambridge University Press, 410.

Brönnimann, S., T. Ewen, J. Luterbacher, H. F. Diaz, R. S. Stolarski, and U. Neu, 2008: A focus on climate during the past 100 years. Climate Variability and Extremes during the Past 100 Years , S. Brönnimann, J. Luterbacher, T. Ewen, H. F. Diaz, R. S. Stolarski, and U. Neu, Eds., Springer, 1-25.

Broomell, S., and D. Budescu, 2009: Why Are Experts Correlated? Decomposing Correlations Between Judges. Psychometrika , 74 , 531-553.

Brunet, M., and P. Jones, 2011: Data rescue initiatives: bringing historical climate data into the 21st century. Climate Research , 47 , 29-40.

Budescu, D., S. Broomell, and H.-H. Por, 2009: Improving communication of uncertainty in the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Psychological Sci. , 20 , 299-308.

Byrne, R., S. Mecking, R. Feely, and X. Liu, 2010: Direct observations of basin-wide acidification of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters , 37 .

CCSP, 2009: Best Practice Approaches for Characterizing, Communicating, and Incorporating Scientific Uncertainty in Climate Decision Making.  U.S. Climate Change Science Program. , 96 pp.

Church, J. A., and N. J. White, 2011: Sea-Level Rise from the Late 19th to the Early 21st Century. Surveys in Geophysics , 32 , 585-602.

Church, J. A., J. M. Gregory, N. J. White, S. M. Platten, and J. X. Mitrovica, 2011: Understanding and Projecting Sea Level Change. Oceanography , 24 , 130-143.

Cleveland, W. S., 1979: Robust Locally Weighted Regression and Smoothing Scatterplots. Journal of the American Statistical Association , 74 , 829-836.

Collins, M., and M. R. Allen, 2002: Assessing the relative roles of initial and boundary conditions in interannual to decadal climate predictability. Journal of Climate , 15 , 3104-3109.

Covey, C., et al., 2003: An overview of results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Global and Planetary Change , 37 , 103-133.

Cubasch, U., et al., 2001: Projections of Future Climate Change. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Dee, D. P., et al., 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society , 137 , 553-597.

Denman, K. L., et al., 2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Dlugokencky, E. J., et al., 2009: Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4  burden. Geophysical Research Letters , 36 , L18803.

Duarte, C. M., T. M. Lenton, P. Wadhams, and P. Wassmann, 2012: Commentary: Abrupt climate change in the Arctic. Nature Climate Change , 2 , 60-62.

Easterling, D. R., and M. F. Wehner, 2009: Is the climate warming or cooling? Geophysical Research Letters , 36 , L08706.

Elkins, J., and G. Dutton, 2010: Nitrous oxide and sulfur hexaflouride. Section in State of the Climate in 2009. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 91 , 44-45.

Ettema, J., M. R. van den Broeke, E. van Meijgaard, W. J. van de Berg, J. L. Bamber, J. E. Box, and R. C. Bales, 2009: Higher surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by high-resolution climate modeling. Geophysical Research Letters , 36 , L12501.

Foley, J., et al., 2005: Global consequences of land use. Science , 309 , 570-574.

Folland, C. K., et al., 2001: Observed Climate Variability and Change. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Forest, C. E., P. H. Stone, and A. P. Sokolov, 2008: Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes. Tellus A , 60 , 911-920.

Forster, P., et al., 2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Frame, D. J., and D. A. Stone, 2013: Assessment of the first consensus prediction on climate change. Nature Clim. Change , 3 , 357-359.

Frame, D. J., D. A. Stone, P. A. Stott, and M. R. Allen, 2006: Alternatives to stabilization scenarios. Geophysical Research Letters , 33 .

Fujino, J., R. Nair, M. Kainuma, T. Masui, and Y. Matsuoka, 2006: Multi-gas mitigation analysis on stabilization scenarios using aim global model. Energy Journal , 0 , 343-353.

GCOS, 2009: Progress Report on the Implementation of the Global Observing System for Climate in Support of the UNFCCC 2004-2008, GCOS-129 (WMO/TD-No. 1489; GOOS-173; GTOS-70).

——, 2011: Systematic Observation Requirements for Satellite-based Products for Climate Supplemental details to the satellite-based component of the Implementation Plan for the Global Observing System for Climate in Support of the UNFCCC – 2011 Update, (GCOS-154) – December 2011.

Goosse, H., W. Lefebvre, A. de Montety, E. Crespin, and A. H. Orsi, 2009: Consistent past half-century trends in the atmosphere, the sea ice and the ocean at high southern latitudes. Climate Dynamics , 33 , 999-1016.

Granier, C., et al., 2011: Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period. Climatic Change , 109 , 163-190.

Haas, C., A. Pfaffling, S. Hendricks, L. Rabenstein, J. L. Etienne, and I. Rigor, 2008: Reduced ice thickness in Arctic Transpolar Drift favors rapid ice retreat. Geophysical Research Letters , 35 , L17501.

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo, 2010: Global surface temperature change. Reviews of Geophysics , 48 , RG4004.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, P. Kharecha, and K. von Schuckmann, 2011: Earth’s energy imbalance and implications. Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 11 , 13421–13449.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade, 2006: Global temperature change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 103 , 14288-14293.

Hansen, J., D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, and G. Russell, 1981: Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science , 213 , 957-966.

Hawkins, E., and R. Sutton, 2009: The Potential to Narrow Uncertainty in Regional Climate Predictions. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 90 , 1095-1107.

Hawkins, E., and R. Sutton, 2011: The potential to narrow uncertainty in projections of regional precipitation change. Climate Dynamics , 37 , 407-418.

Hegerl, G. C., et al., 2007: Understanding and Attributing Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Hijioka, Y., Y. Matsuoka, H. Nishomoto, M. Masui, and M. Kainuma, 2008: Global GHG Emission Scenarios under GHG Concentration Stabilization Targets. Journal of Global Environment Engineering , 13 , 97-108.

Hoelzle, M., G. Darms, M. P. Lüthi, and S. Suter, 2011: Evidence of accelerated englacial warming in the Monte Rosa area, Switzerland/Italy. Cryosphere , 5 , 231-243.

Houghton, R., 2003: Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850-2000. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology , 55 , 378-390.

Huntingford, C., J. Lowe, B. Booth, C. Jones, G. Harris, L. Gohar, and P. Meir, 2009: Contributions of carbon cycle uncertainty to future climate projection spread. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology , doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00414.x, 355-360.

Hurtt, G. C., et al., 2011: Harmonization of land-use scenarios for the period 1500-2100: 600 years of global gridded annual land-use transitions, wood harvest, and resulting secondary lands. Climatic Change , 109 , 117-161.

InterAcademy Council, 2010: Climate Change Assessments. Review of the Processes and Procedures of the IPCC . IPCC, 1990: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment.  Cambridge University Press, 212 pp.

——, 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  Cambridge University Press.

——, 2000: IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

——, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  Cambridge University Press.

——, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).  Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.

——, 2012a: Procedures for the preparation, review, acceptance, adoption, approval and publication of IPCC reports.

——, 2012b: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 582 pp.

JCGM, 2008: JCGM 100: 2008. GUM 1995 with minor corrections. Evaluation of measurement data — Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology.

Jevrejeva, S., J. C. Moore, A. Grinsted, and P. L. Woodworth, 2008: Recent global sea level acceleration started over 200 years ago? Geophysical Research Letters , 35 , L08715.

Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky, 1979: Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica , 47 , 263-291.

Kahneman, D., P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, Eds., 1982: Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases . Cambridge University Press, 544 pp.

Kandlikar, M., J. Risbey, and S. Dessai, 2005: Representing and communicating deep uncertainty in climate-change assessments. Comptes Rendus Geoscience , 337 , 443-455.

Knutti, R., F. Joos, S. A. Müller, G. K. Plattner, and T. F. Stocker, 2005: Probabilistic climate change projections for CO2  stabilization profiles. Geophysical Research Letters , 32 , L20707.

Knutti, R., et al., 2008: A review of uncertainties in global temperature projections over the twenty-first century. Journal of Climate , 21 , 2651-2663.

Kopp, G., and J. L. Lean, 2011: A new, lower value of total solar irradiance: Evidence and climate significance. Geophysical Research Letters , 38.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, M. Wensnahan, I. Rigor, H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi, 2009: Thinning and volume loss of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: 2003-2008. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans , 114 , C07005.

Lamarque, J. F., et al., 2011: Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climatic Change , 109 , 191-212.

Lambert, F., et al., 2008: Dust-climate couplings over the past 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core. Nature , 452 , 616-619.

Le Treut, H., et al., 2007: Historical Overview of Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press, 94-127.

Lemke, P., et al., 2007: Observations: Changes in Snow, Ice and Frozen Ground. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Lenton, T., H. Held, E. Kriegler, J. Hall, W. Lucht, S. Rahmstorf, and H. Schellnhuber, 2008: Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 105 , 1786-1793.

Lüthi, D., et al., 2008: High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present. Nature , 453 , 379-382.

Lüthi, M., and M. Funk, 2001: Modelling heat flow in a cold, high-altitude glacier: interpretation of measurements from Colle Gnifetti, Swiss Alps. Journal of Glaciology , 47 , 314-324.

Mann, M., Z. Zhang, M. Hughes, R. Bradley, S. Miller, S. Rutherford, and F. Ni, 2008: Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 105 , 13252-13257.

Manning, M., et al., 2004: IPCC Workshop on: Describing Scientific Uncertainties in Climate Change to Support Analysis of Risk and of Options. Workshop Report , IPCC, Ed., IPCC Working Group I Technical Support Unit, Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/, 138.

Masson, D., and R. Knutti, 2011: Climate model genealogy. Geophysical Research Letters , 38 , L08703.

Mastrandrea, M. D., et al., 2010: Guidance Notes for Lead Authors of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report on Consistent Treatment of Uncertainties.

Masui, T., et al., 2011: An emission pathway for stabilization at 6 Wm 2 radiative forcing. Climatic Change , 109 , 59-76.

Matthews, H. D., and A. J. Weaver, 2010: Committed climate warming. Nature Geoscience , 3 , 142-143.

Meehl, G. A., et al., 2007: Global Climate Projections. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , Cambridge University Press.

Meinshausen, M., et al., 2011: The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions from 1765 to 2300. Climatic Change , 109 , 213-241.

Menne, M. J., I. Durre, R. S. Vose, B. E. Gleason, and T. G. Houston, 2012: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily Database. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology , 29 , 897-910.

Mernild, S. H., G. E. Liston, C. A. Hiemstra, K. Steffen, E. Hanna, and J. H. Christensen, 2009: Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass-balance modelling and freshwater flux for 2007, and in a 1995-2007 perspective. Hydrological Processes , 23 , 2470-2484.

Midorikawa, T., et al., 2010: Decreasing pH trend estimated from 25-yr time series of carbonate parameters in the western North Pacific. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology , 62 , 649-659.

Morgan, M. G., M. Henrion, and M. Small, 1990: Uncertainty: A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk and Policy Analysis. , Cambridge University Press, 332 pp.

Morice, C. P., J. J. Kennedy, N. A. Rayner, and P. D. Jones, 2012: Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 data set. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres , 117 , D08101.

Moss, R., et al., 2010: The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature , 463 , 747-756.

Moss, R., et al., 2008: Towards New Scenarios for Analysis of Emissions, Climate Change, Impacts, and Response Strategies. Geneva, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 132.

Moss, R. H., and S. H. Schneider, 2000: Uncertainties in the IPCC TAR: Recommendations to lead authors for more consistent assessment and reporting. In: Guidance Papers on the Cross Cutting Issues of the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 33-51.

Murphy, D., S. Solomon, R. Portmann, K. Rosenlof, P. Forster, and T. Wong, 2009: An observationally based energy balance for the Earth since 1950. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres , 114 , D17107.

Myhre, G., E. Highwood, K. Shine, and F. Stordal, 1998: New estimates of radiative forcing due to well mixed greenhouse gases. Geophysical Research Letters , 25 , 2715-2718.

Nghiem, S. V., et al., 2012: The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012. Geophysical Research Letters , 39 , L20502.

Oreskes, N., K. Shrader-Frechette, and K. Belitz, 1994: Verification, Validation, and Confirmation of Numerical Models in the Earth Sciences. Science , 263 , 641-646.

Pall, P., et al., 2011: Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to flood risk in England and Wales in autumn 2000. Nature , 470 , 382-385.

Patt, A. G., and D. P. Schrag, 2003: Using specific language to describe risk and probability. Climatic Change , 61 , 17-30.

Patt, A. G., and S. Dessai, 2005: Communicating uncertainty: lessons learned and suggestions for climate change assessment. Comptes Rendu Geosciences , 337 , 425-441.

Pennell, C., and T. Reichler, 2011: On the Effective Number of Climate Models. Journal of Climate , 24 , 2358-2367.

Peterson, T. C., P. A. Stott, and S. Herring, 2012: Explaining Extreme Events of 2011 from a Climate Perspective. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 93 , 1041-1067.

Peterson, T. C., et al., 2008: Why weather and climate extremes matter. Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate. Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands , 11-33.

Rahmstorf, S., G. Foster, and A. Cazenave, 2012: Comparing climate projections to observations up to 2011. Environmental Research Letters , 7 , 044035.

Ray, R. D., and B. C. Douglas, 2011: Experiments in reconstructing twentieth-century sea levels. Progress in Oceanography , 91 , 496-515.

Riahi, K., A. Grübler, and N. Nakicenovic, 2007: Scenarios of long-term socio-economic and environmental development under climate stabilization. Technological Forecasting and Social Change , 74 , 887-935.

Riahi, K., et al., 2011: RCP 8.5-A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions. Climatic Change , 109 , 33-57.

Risbey, J. S., and M. Kandlikar, 2007: Expressions of likelihood and confidence in the IPCC uncertainty assessment process. Climatic Change , 85 , 19-31.

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Seneviratne, S., et al., 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews , 99 , 125-161.

Seneviratne, S. I., et al., 2012: Chapter 3: Changes in Climate Extremes and their Impacts on the Natural Physical

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Steinhilber, F., J. Beer, and C. Fröhlich, 2009: Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophysical Research Letters , 36 , L19704.

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Taylor, K. E., R. J. Stouffer, and G. A. Meehl, 2012: An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 93 , 485-498.

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Willis, J., D. Chambers, C. Kuo, and C. Shum, 2010: Global Sea Level Rise Recent Progress and Challenges for the Decade to Come. Oceanography , 23 , 26-35.

Willis, J. K., J. M. Lyman, G. C. Johnson, and J. Gilson, 2009: In Situ Data Biases and Recent Ocean Heat Content Variability. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology , 26 , 846-852.

Wise, M., et al., 2009: Implications of Limiting CO2  Concentrations for Land Use and Energy. Science , 324 , 1183-1186.

Yip, S., C. A. T. Ferro, D. B. Stephenson, and E. Hawkins, 2011: A Simple, Coherent Framework for Partitioning

Uncertainty in Climate Predictions. Journal of Climate , 24 , 4634-4643.

Zemp, M., M. Hoelzle, and W. Haeberli, 2009: Six decades of glacier mass-balance observations: a review of the worldwide monitoring network. Annals of Glaciology , 50 , 101-111.

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United Nations Environment Programme and World Glacier Monitoring Service.

Zhang, X., and F. Zwiers, 2012: Statistical indices for the diagnosing and detecting changes in extremes. Extremes in a Changing Climate: Detection, Analysis and Uncertainty , A. AghaKouchak, D. Easterling, K. Hsu, S. Schubert, and S. Sorooshian, Eds., Springer.


IPCC 5th Assesssement Report (AR5) cover

The previous list of source material is a good reference, but it is highly recommended for everyone to read the various IPCC reports including the original complete final draft Report, dated 7 June 2013, all of the documents are available for free online in .pdf format:

IPCC PRESS RELEASE: 27 September 2013 



Summary for Policymakers – IPCC Working Group I



Complete Underlying Scientific/Technical Assessment (166MB)



IPCC Website about the IPCC’s Fifth Assessement Report (AR5):



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EV of the Year Judge, independent green journalist, photographer, author and sustainability activist that has published over 1000 articles. Mr Burridge’s travels have taken him to over 30 countries and 300+ major cities. He is originally from the USA, but has been residing in Australia for the last seven years. Connect to Ken Burridge on: Twitter, facebook, Google+Linked in or website

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